IMAM HUSAYN (A.S.)
Titles : Ash-Shaheed, Sayyedush Shuhada (chief of martyrs)
Birth : 3rd Sha’ban 3-4 A.H. in Madina
Father: Imam Ali (A.S.)
Mother: Sayyida Fatima (A.S.)
Martyrdom: ‘Ashura Day (10th Muharram) 61 A.H. in Karbala
Six months after Imam Hasan (A.S.) was born, Sayyida Fatima(A.S..) became pregnant with her second child. On the third of Sha’ban, the fourth year after Hijra, Rasulullah (S.A.W..) was given news of the birth of Imam Husayn (A.S.). He hurried to the house of Imam Ali and Fatima (A.S.)
Safia Bint Abdul Muttalib, Asma Bint Umais, and Um Salama were present when Imam Husayn was born. When the Prophet asked Safia (his aunt) to bring him the newborn child, she said: "We have not cleaned him yet." When the Prophet heard this, he said: "You clean him? Surely Allah has cleaned and purified him"
Asma took the newborn child to him. The infant was wrapped in a piece of cloth. The face of Rasulullah (S.A.W.) lit up upon seeing his grandson. He took him in his arms. He recited the Adhan into his right ear, and read the Iqama in his left ear. He, then, placed the baby in his lap and wept.
Asma asked him, "Why are you crying?"
"Because of my son," he replied.
"He is a newborn baby," she said.
"O Asma," he said, "After me, the transgressing party will kill him. May Allah never grant them my intercession."
Then he said: "Asma, do not tell Fatima about this, for she has just given birth to him."
Jibrail came and revealed to Rasulullah to give the new baby the name Husayn which is the Arabic version of the old Hebrew name Shabbir, which was Harun’s second son’s name. When Jibrail descended to the Prophet, scores of angels accompanied him to congratulate and console the Prophet for Imam Husayn’s birth and expected martyrdom.
Seven days after the birth , Rasulullah (S.A.W.) shaved Husayn’s head and gave the weight of his hair as charity for him.
Imam spent his childhood in the arms of Rasulullah (S.A.W.) and was known to be the image both physically and in character to him. Rasulullah (S.A.W.) said “Husayn is a part of me and I am a part of Husayn”
EID E MUBAHILA
"To those that argue with you concerning Jesus after the knowledge you have received say : Come, let us gather our sons and your sons, our women and your women, ourselves and yourselves . We will pray together and call down the curse of Allah on every liar ." 3:61
When real arguments fail to produce the desired effect, then to wish for the intervention of Allah’s judgement in order to sift the right from wrong; is called Mubahila.
In the year 9 A.H. Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.) wrote to the heads of different tribes and countries of the world inviting them to Islam. One of the letters was written to the Christian community of Najran. A large delegation was appointed to go to meet the Prophet (S.A.W.). Warmly welcomed by the Prophet (S.A.W.) they were put up in one part of the mosque where they were allowed to perform their prayers comfortably. They asked the Prophet (S.A.W.) what he though of Jesus and he said: "He was a human being created by God and was a prophet ."
"Have you ever seen any child born in this world without a father?" they asked.
The Prophet (S.A.W.) replied: "Jesus is like Adam in the sight of Allah. He created him from dust and then said to him 'be' and he was " 3:59
The could not answer to this argument , but continued to debate the issue when the aya inviting them to a Mubahila was revealed. They accepted the challenge and at the appointed hour arrived at the place where the Mubahila was going to take place. There they saw the Ahlul Kisaa - The Prophet (S.A.W.), Imam Ali (A.S>) Imamayn Hasanayn (A.S.) and Sayyida Fatima (A.S.) and immediately their leader Abu Harith said:
"I see such faces that if they raise their hands in supplication and pray to God that the biggest mountain may be moved from its place, the same will happen immediately. We should in no circumstance engage in a Mubahila with these sacred people because it is possible that .....not even one of us may remain alive on the face of the earth ."
They withdrew from the Mubahila.
[Zirr b. Hubaysh reported on the authority of Ibn Mas'ud: ]
While the Prophet (S.A.W.) was praying, Hasan and Husayn came and stood behind him. When he raised his head, he took them tenderly (into his arms). When he resumed (his prayers), they resumed (theirs). Then when he had finished, he sat one on his right knee and the other on his left knee and said: Whoever loves me, should love these two. They are the two proofs (hujjat Allah) of God of His Prophet in the contest of prayer (mubahala). After their father, , they were the two proofs of God (hujjat Allah) to the community concerning religion (din) and belief
[Abd Allah b. Maymun al-Qaddah reported on the authority of Jafar b. Muhammad al-Sadiq, peace be on them, who said:]
Hasan and Husayn, were wrestling in front of Rasulullah (S.A.W.). Hasan, catch hold of Husayn, he said. “Rasulllah!, are you encouraging the big one against the little one?” said Fatima (A.S.). It is Jibrail, who is saying to Husayn; Husayn, catch hold of Hasan, replied Rasulullah (S.A.W.).
When Hazrat Abbas was born, Imam Ali asked Imam Husayn (A.S.) to recite the adhaan and the iqamah in the ears of the child. When he was on the arms of Imam, the infant smiled and raised his arms. There were tears in Imam Husayn’s (as.) eyes. In early childhood Hazrat Abbas would follow Imam Husayn like a shadow. If Imam looked thirsty, Abbas would rush to bring him water. If Imam seemed hot, Abbas would fan him with the hem of his cloak.
At the battle of Siffeen in the 34th Hijrah, Abbas was only eight years old. Imam Husayn was fighting in the battle field. When Abbas saw an enemy soldier approaching Imam from behind, he took a sword and rushed into the battle field and killed the enemy, at the same time crying out in a loud voice, "How can any one dare attack my Mawla while I am alive." He continued to fight maintaining his position behind Imam Husayn (A.S..). Muawiya saw this and asked, "Who is that boy?" When he was told he was Abbas ibne Ali, he said, "By God! No one can fight like that at that age except a son of Ali!"
Ibrahim b. al-Rafi'i reported on the authority of his father, on the authority of his grandfather, who said:]
I saw Hasan and Husayn, (A.S.), walking to the pilgrimage. They did not pass a rider who did not dismount and walk too. It became arduous for some of them. They said to Sad b. Abi Waqqas Walking is arduous for us. We would prefer to ride but these two young sayyids are walking. Abu Muhammad to Hasan (A.S.) “Walking is hard on a group of those with you, yet the people cannot make themselves feel better by riding when they see you two walking. If you rode, (it would be easier for them)”. “We will not ride, replied Hasan. “We have pledged ourselves to walk to the Sacred House of God on our feet. However, we will turn aside from the road. They both went aside from the people.”
Imam Husayn (A.S.) was Imam for 10 years which was mostly during the reign of Muawiya, except the last 6 month which coincided with the reign of Yazid.
Imam lived under the most difficult conditions of persecution. This was due to the fact that, first of all, religious laws and regulations had lost much of their weight and credit. Secondly, Muawiya had made use of every possible means to put aside the Household of prophet and to move them out of the way.
Muawiya also wanted to strengthen the basis of future kingdom of his son, Yazid, who because of his lack of principles and scruples was opposed by a large group of Muslims. In order to quell all opposition, Muawiya had undertaken more severe means until he died in 60 AH and his son Yazid took his place.
Giving the oath of allegiance, was an old Arab practice which was carried out in important matters like governorship.. Breaking the agreement after the oath of allegiance, was considered a crime.
Muawiya during his life time, had asked well-known people to give the oath of allegiance to Yazid, but did not impose this request upon Imam Husayn (A.S.). He particularly told Yazid in his last will that if Imam Husayn (A.S.) refused to give the oath of allegiance, he should take it easy because Muawiya knew the bad consequences of such enforcement.
However Yazid neglected his father's advice, and immediately after taking over the power, ordered the governor of Medina to either take the pledge of allegiance from Imam Husayn (A.S.), or send his head to Damascus.
After the governor of Medina informed this demand to him privately, Imam asked for the matter to be resolved in public in the masjid for it was an important matter for the Umma. By the response received from the governor, Imam knew that this would not be done and in order to avoid bloodshed in Madina, he moved with his family to Makka. This was the beginning of Shaban 60 AH. Imam stayed in Makka for nearly four month.
This news spread throughout the Islamic world. A flood of letters began to flood in, particularly from the city of Kufa in Iraq, inviting the Imam to go there and to set up a government.
Imam remained in Makka until Dhulhijja when Muslims from all over the world came to Makka to perform Hajj. Imam realised that some of the followers of Yazid had entered Makka as Hajis with the mission of killing Imam Imam decided to leave for Iraq before completing the ceremony of Hajj. When asked for the reason for the mysterious departure, Imam said that he would perform this year's Hajj in the desert of Karbala, offering the sacrifice of not any animals, but himself and his family and friends.
Giving a short talk in the vast crowd of people, he announced that he was setting for Iraq, and said he would be martyred. He asked people to join him in attaining the goal of offering their lives in the path of Allah
Imam Husayn (A.S.) was determined not to give his allegiance to Yazid and fully knew that he would be killed.
While on the way of Kufa, he received the news that under the pressure and threats of Yazid's men, the people of Kufa did not support his ambassador - Muslim ibn Aqeel. Some of them had joined Yazid's army The city and its surroundings were under very strict marshal law by countless soldiers of enemy who where waiting for Imam. Muslim ibn Aqeel had been martyred.
Approximately 44 miles from Kufa, in a desert called Karbala, Imam and his followers were surrounded by the army of Yazid. The water supply was cut off and the number of Yazid's army increased to 30,000 fully equipped soldiers.
The enemy intended to start the war in the eve of the ninth of Muharram, but Imam asked for a delay till the next morning to be able to do ibada for that night. Some 30 soldiers of enemy joined Imam, among them was Hurr who was one of the Generals of the army of Yazid.
On the tenth of Muharram of the year 61A.H. (680 C.E.) the war began.
That day, they fought from morning till their final breath, and all the companions and the relatives were martyred.
When Imam was alone, he saw his six-month-old baby dying from thirst. Imam took the infant - Ali Abdullah Al-Asgher to the enemy asking for some water. The words of Imam has not been finished that the thirst of the baby was quenched by a deadly poisoned arrow from enemy which pinned the baby's neck to the arm of his father.
Imam went to the battlefield still doing amr bil ma’ruf and reminding them of their status as free human beings if not Muslims. The advice fell on deaf ears and he fought for a long time and was finally martyred. The army of Yazid having killed Imam Husayn (A.S.), cut his head and raised it on a lance.
The army of Yazid then burnt the tents, snatching away the possessions of the women and children including their hijabs.. They decapitated the bodies of the martyrs, leaving them on the hot desert sand without burial.
The women and children, and Imam Ali Zaynul Aabedeen (A.S.) along with the heads of the martyrs were taken to Kufa and then to Karbala.
The event of Karbala was a major factor in the overthrow of Umayya kingdom though its effect was delayed. Among its immediate results were the revolts and rebellions combined with bloody wars which continued for twelve years.
Imam Husayn had married five times. The names of his wives are:
1. Shahr Banu the daughter of Yazd Gurd, the last emperor of Iran. Imam Zaynul Abedin (A.S.) was her son. She died within ten days of our fourth Imam's birth.
2. Rabab was the daughter of Imra'u Al Qays the chief of the tribe of Kinda.Sayyida Rabab was the mother of Sakinah and the baby Abdallah (also called Ali Asghar). She was present in Kerbala with Imam Husayn . and died after one year of return to Madina after the tragedy of Kerbala.
3. Layla was the daughter of Abu Murra, the son of Urwah bin Mas'ud Al Thaqafi. Her mother was Maymunah, the daughter of Abu Sufyan and thus she was the cousin of Yazid. Her aunt Umm Sa'id, daughter of Urwah was a wife of Imam Ali.. Sayyida Laila was the mother of Ali Akbar. According to scholars she was not alive at the time of the Tragedy of Kerbala. Her name has not been mentioned in the old books written about Kerbala. Nor was her name mentioned in the court of Yazid and there is no account of anyone blaming Yazid for imprisoning his own cousin.
4. Umm Ishaq was the daughter of Talhah bin Ubaydallah Taimi and she is the mother of Fatema Kubra.
5. Quda'iyah was from the the tribe of Quda'ah. She gave birth to one child Jaffer who died in Childhood.